Gabon is home to a population of forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), which are a subspecies of African elephants adapted to living in dense rainforest habitats. The forest elephants in Gabon are an important part of the country's biodiversity, and play a key role in maintaining the health and diversity of forest ecosystems. Forest elephants are smaller than their savanna elephant counterparts, with rounder ears and straighter tusks. They are highly social and form tight-knit family groups led by a matriarchal elder female. They communicate through a variety of vocalizations, and use low-frequency rumbling sounds that can travel long distances through the forest.
The forest buffalo, also known as the dwarf buffalo or the Gabonese forest buffalo, is a subspecies of the African buffalo that is found in the rainforests of central and West Africa, including Gabon. In Gabon, forest buffalo populations are found in a number of protected areas, including Loango National Park, Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, and Ivindo National Park. These buffalo are adapted to living in dense forests, where they feed on a variety of plant material, including leaves, bark, and fruits. The forest buffalo is smaller in size compared to the savanna buffalo, and has a reddish-brown coat with a shaggy appearance. They have shorter and curved horns compared to their savanna counterparts. They are social animals and can form herds of up to 40 individuals, which are typically led by a dominant male. The forest buffalo is an important species in the ecosystems of Gabon's rainforests, playing a role in seed dispersal and maintaining vegetation.